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“小白“            30分51秒             DVD單頻道錄影            1999           

"Siao-Pai", 1999, dog cage, monitor, DCD player, various dimension, 30m51s

錄像 Video

 

幾乎在同時期,彭弘智開始將針孔攝影機安裝在狗的頭上,讓狗兒帶著人們去看它們的世界。「小白」(Siao-Pai)(1999)乃這系列的第一件作品。事實上,這不是從狗的眼睛看到的世界(姑且不論人如何再現狗的眼睛所看到世界的知識論問題,這可能甚至也不是這系列作品的焦點)。所謂「狗觀點」,其實是模擬狗的視野,而讓攝影機隨著狗的注意力和動作進行攝影的過程。影片開始時,主人想盡各種辦法吸引狗兒的注意力,我們聽到背景裡主人不斷呼喚「小白!小白!」「這不是你的最愛嗎?」鏡頭有時遲疑,有時快速移動,或完全靜止。觀賞者的樂趣之一,就是從鏡頭所拍攝的景象中,一方面瞭解其中的內容,另一方面揣測小白到底在注意到什麼、看什麼、或想什麼。這裡,所謂鏡頭的「內容」就產生了歧義和曖昧:它可以是鏡頭所拍攝到的一切,也可以是指拍攝者的意圖。這種歧義在人所拍攝的鏡頭中當然也存在,但在狗所「拍攝」的鏡頭中,歧義便更加明顯;因為人們可以藉由彼此的「同理心」(empathy)和流行於一般視覺經驗中的鏡頭語言,揣測到拍攝者的意圖。相對的,人與狗之間,這種「同理心」並不多(設想人與貓,或其他動物之間,差距可能更大),而鏡頭語言對狗而言,至少到目前為止,還是非常陌生的世界。(什麼時候狗類才有機會拿起攝影機,學習拍攝它們所喜歡的題材內容?)而且,小白並不知道它正在「拍攝」,換言之,上述「拍攝者的意圖」在這影片中基本上是不存在的,因此,我們所揣測到的小白的意圖,更精確的說,乃是小白作為「行為者」(agent)的意圖,而非「拍攝者」(photographer)的意圖。更有趣的是,如果我們想要知道小白作為「行為者」的意圖,比較準確的方式是看著它正在做什麼、有什麼表情,畢竟如果我們和狗相處得夠久的話,這是相當容易的事。而現在,由於攝影機就繫在小白的頭上,我們看不到它,所以我們面臨到第二層次的曖昧:小白正在做什麼、想什麼、有什麼表情?而第一層次的曖昧就必須改為:鏡頭所拍攝的一切和攜帶鏡頭的「行為者」的意圖之間,到底有什麼關係?

At almost the same time, Peng Hung-chih began attaching a pinhead-sized camera to the head of a dog, to enable people to see the world from a dog's perspective. "Siao-Pai" (1999) is the first work in this series. In fact, it is not only a matter of showing the world from the perspective of a dog (we will leave aside the epistemological question of how the world perceived with the eyes of a dog can be represented, because that is not what the work primarily involves). In fact, the so-called "dog's perspective" simulates the dog's field of vision, which means that the camera is able to follow the dog's attention and movements and record things accordingly. At the beginning of the video, the dog's owner does everything possible to attract the animal's attention. In the background we hear him constantly calling "Siao-Pai, Siao-Pai. Isn't that what you love best?" The pictures alternate sometimes slowly, sometimes quickly, sometimes the movement seems to be frozen. What entices viewers is that they sometimes recognize a content in the pictures the camera records, but sometimes they simply have to guess what it is that attracts the dog's attention, what he sees or thinks. Here the so-called content of the pictures produces different, highly ambivalent meanings. Content can be anything that the camera captures, but it can also refer to the intention of the photographer. Of course, this ambivalence is also present in pictures taken by human beings, but it is much more strongly expressed in scenes recorded by a dog, because people can better guess the intention behind certain pictures due to their capacity for empathy and the scenic language based on a common visual experience. In comparison, the empathy between humans and dogs is not especially well developed (although, if we think of the relationship human - rat or with other creatures, then the discrepancy is naturally even greater). In any case, the language of pictures is still a very alien world for a dog - at least it still is today. (When will it be possible for dogs to obtain a camera and capture that which appears important to them in pictures?) Therefore, Siao-Pai naturally does not know that he is capturing something in pictures. In other words, the aforementioned "intention of the filmer" practically does not exist in these images. Thus the intention that we think we can guess is basically Siao-Pai's intention as "the one taking action" and not Siao-Pai's intention as "photographer". What is particularly interesting here is that if we want to recognize Siao-Pai's intention as actor, then a relatively certain way to do so is by observing what he is just doing or which expression he assumes. If we have spent some time with the dog and are familiar with him, this is a relatively simple matter. Here, though, since the camera is just mounted on the dog's head and we cannot see the dog himself, we are confronted with the second level of meaning: what is Siao-Pai doing now, what is he thinking now, what expression does he have? And consequently the first level of meaning must change accordingly: what relationship is there between what the lens depicts and the intention of the "actor" guiding the camera?

例如,鏡頭裡出現樓梯,背景遠處有主人(已經在樓下)呼喚「小白!」的聲音,從鏡頭的晃動,我們觀賞者猜測小白正在猶疑要不要下樓,但我們不知道小白真正在做什麼,總之,鏡頭「遲疑」了一陣之後,開始下樓,走上街頭,過馬路等,中間還有一段小白與其他小狗互相叫吼嘶怒的片段。逐漸地,我們發現,我們的興趣不太在於鏡頭裡面的「內容」,而在於小白遇到了什麼狀況:我們開始學習用小白的「觀點」來看世界,替它建立一段敘述。這個鏡頭的「觀點」既不同於電影導演的觀點,也不同於電影中角色的觀點,而是一種全新的它者觀點,需要我們開發新的知覺和閱讀方式,才有辦法瞭解。這種新的知覺與閱讀,結合了我們對於攝影機功能(如對焦速度、景深、光線和聲音的控制等),鏡頭內容所指涉的外在環境,以及我們對於狗世界,尤其「小白」這隻狗的性格等的認知。

When a staircase appears in the scene, for example, and somewhere in the background we hear the dog's master (who has just arrived at the stairs below) calling "Siao-Pai", then we as viewers can guess by observing the movement of the picture that Siao-Pai is just considering whether he should go down the stairs or not - but we do not know what Siao-Pai actually does. In short: the picture "hesitates" for a moment, then goes down the stairs onto the street, and goes along the sidewalk. In between, we also hear more dogs barking. We slowly realize that we are less interested in the "content" of the scenes than in the situation that Siao-Pai is in now: we gradually learn to observe the world from Siao-Pai's "perspective" and to develop a narrative structure for him. The perspective of these scenes differs from that of a film director, though, but also from that of an actor in a film: it is the completely new perspective of an Other and it calls for us to learn completely new methods of perceiving and reading. Only then does understanding become possible. This new perception, this new reading conjoins our photographic function (e.g. the control of depth, focus, sound, etc.), the surroundings, to which the content of the picture refers, and our knowledge of the world of dogs, in this case particularly of Siao-Pai's character, etc.

將錄影機繫在會動的機械或物體上,例如腳踏車等,降低或完全消除人作為「拍攝者」的介入,以凸顯鏡頭和影像內容的隨機性,或特殊的規律性,乃是錄影藝術發展中一些重要的實驗。把錄影機繫在狗身上,隨著狗的活動來進行拍攝,則讓我們以全新的觀點認識環境和狗的世界,從而透過我們對狗觀點的模擬和認同,轉移我們和狗之間的認知和情感關係。

When a video camera is attached to moving things, a bicycle for example, and when the intervention of a human as "filmer" is highly reduced or removed altogether, thus stressing the randomness of the content of the scenes or certain regularities, then these are important experiments for the development of video art. If the video camera is attached to the body of a dog and the shots follow the dog's movements, then this allows us to recognize the surroundings and the world of a dog from a completely different perspective. This also changes our emotional relationship to the dog, simply because we can assume the standpoint of the dog and thus identify with it.

文:徐文瑞 (節錄自:狗有沒有穿衣服?論彭弘智)

Text: Manray Hsu (Excerpts from "Do Dogs Wear Clothes? On Peng Hung-chih")

 

攝影:彭弘智 Photo: Hung-Chih Peng

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